On the contrary to what the Christian religion believes Celsus says that Jesus was born to a mother who was a spinner, and his legitimate father a Roman soldier, Panthera (Celsus pg. Celsus warned that Christianity could have disastrous effects for civic life-namely that Christians did not have the common good of all people in mind and that their reliance on superstition instead of reason would set mankind back. The first critique that is offered by Celsus is the secrecy of Christians. But as Celsus delights to heap up calumnies against us, and, in addition to those which he has already uttered, has added others, let us examine these also, and see whether it be the Christians or Celsus who have reason to be ashamed of what is said. On The True Doctrine is the earliest known comprehensive criticism of Christianity. As an anti-Christian Greek philosopher, Celsus mounted an attack on Christianity. Reihe: Kommentar zu frühchristlichen Apologeten (KfA, Suppl.-Vol.  As for their opinions regarding their sacred mission and exclusive holiness, Celsus responds by deriding their insignificance, comparing them to a swarm of bats, or ants creeping out of their nest, or frogs holding a symposium round a swamp, or worms in conventicle in a corner of the mud. v. N. Brox, K. Niederwimmer, H. E. Lona, F. R. Prostmeier, J. Ulrich. , Origen wrote his refutation in 248. His logic is that if there is evil in the world, and the world is itself Godâs creation, then God must have created evil. But let us look at what Celsus next with great ostentation announces in the following fashion: "And again," he says, "let us resume the subject from the beginning, with a larger array of proofs. Yet he further criticizes Christian practices as alien, and by extension, a threat to traditional Roman culture. Celsus's late second century "On the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians," is one of the most remarkable and thorough-going arguments ever written against the core beliefs and practices of Christianity, ancient or modern. | download | Z-Library. On the contrary to what the Christian religion believes Celsus says that Jesus was born to a mother who was a spinner, and his legitimate father a Roman soldier, Panthera (Celsus pg. God is good, and beautiful, and blessed, and that in the best and most beautiful degree. He asserts, "We see, indeed, in private houses workers in wool and leather, and fullers, and persons of the most uninstructed and rustic character, not venturing to utter a word in the presence of their elders and wiser masters; but when they get hold of the children privately, and certain women as ignorant as themselves, they pour forth wonderful statements, to the effect that they ought not to give heed to their father and to their teachers, but should obey them; that the former are foolish and stupid, and neither know nor can perform anything that is really good, being preoccupied with empty trifles; that they alone know how men ought to live, and that, if the children obey them, they will both be happy themselves, and will make their home happy also. â¦  He is known for his literary work, On The True Doctrine (or Discourse, Account, Word; Hellenistic Greek: Λόγος Ἀληθής, Logos Alēthēs), which survives exclusively in quotations from it in Contra Celsum, a refutation written in 248 by Origen of Alexandria. Sometimes quoting, sometimes paraphrasing, sometimes merely referring, Origen reproduces and replies to Celsus' arguments. And as we by our prayers vanquish all demons who stir up war, and lead to the violation of oaths, and disturb the peace, we in this way are much more helpful to the kings than those who go into the field to fight for them. Celsus chided the Christians for rejecting the traditional gods on one hand and then worshipping a mere man on the other. Celsus felt the doctrine of the resurrection was based on an incorrect interpretation of reincarnation. Celsus presents Jews and Christians as descendants of the rebellion against ancient peoples, who held and practiced an ancient Instead, Celsus insisted that the men and animals had a common origin. Celsus Excerpt from the Lexham Bible Dictionary , the most advanced Bible dictionary. However, a good God would not have created an evil which would âthreaten to destroy his own offspring.â. One of Celsus' most bitter complaints is of the refusal of Christians to cooperate with civil society, and their contempt for local customs and the ancient religions. Celsus goes on to say: "We must not disobey the ancient writer [Homer], who said long ago, 'Let one be king, whom the son of crafty Saturn appointed ;'" and adds: "If you set aside this maxim, you will deservedly suffer for it at the hands of the king. A Discourse Against the Christians | Celsus, R. Joseph Hoffman (transl.)  In addition, Celsus addressed the miracles of Jesus, holding that "Jesus performed his miracles by sorcery (γοητεία)":, O light and truth! He ought to have breathed it alike into many bodies, and have sent them out into all the world. CELSUS (c. A.D. 178), an eclectic Platonist and opponent of Christianity known mainly through the reputation of his work, The True Word (or Account; aX r1Ot s Xh yos), brought to light in 248 by Origen who in his Against Celsus quotes, paraphrases and reproduces about nine-tenths of it. After these points Celsus quotes some objections against the doctrine of Jesus, made by a very few individuals who are considered Christians, not of the more intelligent, as he supposes, but of the more ignorant class, and asserts that "the following are the rules laid down by them. He is one of several writers named Celsus who appeared as opponents of Christianity in the second century; he is probably the Celsus who was known as a friend of Lucian, although some doubt this, because Lucian's friend was an Epicurean, and the author of the "True Discourse" shows himself a Platonist. Let us now see on what grounds Celsus urges us to make use of the idol offerings and the public sacrifices in the public feasts. Main Article Primary Sources (1) Celsus, On the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians (c. 175) Christianity is for hysterical women, children and idiots. Related. Celsus' writing is one of the few writings made in response to christian claims that survives today in any form; the church, beginning with its first alliances with Roman power in Constantine's time, never took criticisms lightly; anyone with the audacity to question their claims was branded a "heretic," and their books were banned and burned, often alongside their authors. Celsus On the True Doctrine. , Celsus seems to have been interested in Ancient Egyptian religion, and he seemed to know of Hellenistic Jewish logos-theology, both of which suggest The True Doctrine was composed in Alexandria. And this we do in obedience to the injunction of the apostle, "I exhort, therefore, that first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men; for kings, and for all that are in authority;" and the more any one excels in piety, the more effective help does he render to kings, even more than is given by soldiers, who go forth to fight and slay as many of the enemy as they can. ocr-64 p-64 224 THE ATTACK OF CELSUS ON CHRISTIANITY. And it is not for the purpose of escaping public duties that Christians decline public offices, but that they may reserve themselves for a diviner and more necessary service in the Church of God--for the salvation of men. After this it is superfluous for us to wish to offer a reply to such statements of Celsus as the following: "For why is it an evil to have been educated, and to have studied the best opinions, and to have both the reality and appearance of wisdom? Those who are ambitious of ruling we reject; but we constrain those who, through excess of modesty, are not easily induced to take a public charge in the Church of God. The work of Celsus has been saved through its refu1 Xrj fa \6yos. Celsus divided the work into two sections, the one in which objections are put in the mouth of a Jewish interlocutor and the other in which Celsus speaks as the pagan philosopher that he is. But nearly all we know of it (up to 90 percent of the original) is included in Origen of Alexandriaâs Contra Celsum (âAgainst Celsusâ). What hindrance does this offer to the knowledge of God? Celsus was a Greek philosopher and one of the first people to write a critical treatise on Christianity. And this service is at once necessary and right. 57). It seemed as if it ere common knowledge the transgressions that Jesus mother had committed with the Roman. And while thus speaking, if they see one of the instructors of youth approaching, or one of the more intelligent class, or even the father himself, the more timid among them become afraid, while the more forward incite the children to throw off the yoke, whispering that in the presence of father and teachers they neither will nor can explain to them any good thing, seeing they turn away with aversion from the silliness and stupidity of such persons as being altogether corrupt, and far advanced in wickedness, and such as would inflict punishment upon them; but that if they wish (to avail themselves of their aid,) they must leave their father and their instructors, and go with the women and their playfellows to the women's apartments, or to the leather shop, or to the fuller's shop, that they may attain to perfection;--and by words like these they gain them over.". The first point in Celsusâ argument against the biblical truth is the origin of the Jewish people and Christian faith. Show More. Celsusâs most famous literary work The True Word is now lost. We do not indeed fight under him, although he require it; but we fight on his behalf, forming a special army--an army of piety--by offering our prayers to God.  Celsus attacks the Christians as feeding off faction and disunity, and accuses them of converting the vulgar and ignorant, while refusing to debate wise men. And to those enemies of our faith who require us to bear arms for the commonwealth, and to slay men, we can reply: "Do not those who are priests at certain shrines, and those who attend on certain gods, as you account them, keep their hands free from blood, that they may with hands unstained and free from human blood offer the appointed sacrifices to your gods; and even when war is upon you, you never enlist the priests in the army. It is the nature of a mortal, indeed, to undergo change and remoulding, but of an immortal to remain the same and unaltered. Î¸Î®Ï, Logos AlÄthÄs), which survives exclusively in quotations from it in Contra Celsum, a refutation written in 248 by Origen of Alexandria. But if he come down among men, he must undergo a change, and a change from good to evil, from virtue to vice, from happiness to misery, and from best to worst. Celsus views Christianity as, thus, a conspicuous and obnoxious species of internal flight from the order and reality of the great civic world, so that one will likely find its adherents skulking, rodent- or worm-like, in the dark corners of the worldly house. , Celsus writes that "there is an ancient doctrine [archaios logos] which has existed from the beginning, which has always been maintained by the wisest nations and cities and wise men". Î¸Î®Ï), which survives exclusively in Origen's quotations from it in Contra Celsum.This work, c. 177 is the earliest known comprehensive attack on Christianity. He wrote that some Jews said Jesus' father was actually a Roman soldier named Pantera. Why ought the others, because of these acts, to be accounted wicked rather than this man, seeing they have him as their witness against himself? Celsus next makes certain observations of the following nature: "Again, if God, like Jupiter in the comedy, should, on awaking from a lengthened slumber, desire to rescue the human race from evil, why did He send this Spirit of which you speak into one corner (of the earth)? We shall now proceed to the next statement of Celsus, and examine it with care: "If in obedience to the traditions of their fathers they abstain from such victims, they must also abstain from all animal food, in accordance with the opinions of Pythagoras, who thus showed his respect for the soul and its bodily organs. If that, then, is a laudable custom, how much more so, that while others are engaged in battle, these too should engage as the priests and ministers of God, keeping their hands pure, and wrestling in prayers to God on behalf of those who are fighting in a righteous cause, and for the king who reigns righteously, that whatever is opposed to those who act righteously may be destroyed!" And I make no new statement, but say what has been long settled. Further, Celsus argues that Christian doctrine twisted the Greek concept of immortality of the soul into the resurrection. And such an arrangement appears to be advantageous, not only because it has occurred to the mind of other nations to decide some things differently, but also because it is a duty to protect what has been established for the public advantage; and also because, in all probability, the various quarters of the earth were from the beginning allotted to different superintending spirits, and were thus distributed among certain governing powers, and in this manner the administration of the world is carried on. And none fight better for the king than we do. CELSUS 4 arguments against Christianity Misty Fleming Paper 1 The first of 4 arguments I believe to be of importance is that of the virgin birth. Jesus claims to be born of a virgin in the town of Bethlehem. CELSUS 4 arguments against Christianity Misty Fleming Paper 1 The first of 4 arguments I believe to be of importance is that of the virgin birth. It was said that Jesus was born to a virgin and God himself. Celsus on the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians: Celsus: Amazon.com.mx: Libros Celsus believes that most of world cultures and â¦ Download books for free. All the issues involved are still highly relevant. Origen considered this a fabricated story. But since he says, in addition to this, "What is this preference of sinners over others?" However, Celsus' harshest criticism was reserved for Christians, who "wall themselves off and break away from the rest of mankind". Indians, Persians, Odrysians, Samothracians, Eleusinians, Hyperboreans, Galactophagoi, Druids, and Getae), and instead blames Moses for the corruption of the ancient religion: "the goatherds and shepherds who followed Moses as their leader were deluded by clumsy deceits into thinking that there was only one God, [and] without any rational cause ... these goatherds and shepherds abandoned the worship of many gods". The remarks which we have made not only answer the statements of Celsus regarding the superintending spirits, but anticipate in some measure what he afterwards brings forward, when he says: "Let the second party come forward; and I shall ask them whence they come, and whom they regard as the originator of their ancestral customs. Celsus's tract `On the True Doctrine - A Discourse Against the Christians' could be partly recovered from the treatise by Origin of Alexandria `Contra Celsum'. To this our answer is, that we do, when occasion requires, give help to kings, and that, so to say, a divine help, "putting on the whole armour of God." 2005 (, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 21:23. It was said that Jesus was born to a virgin and God himself. Fast forward to 2019, nearly 1,900 years later and Celsus â¦ The Christians viewed these as idolatrous and inspired by evil spirits, whereas polytheists like Celsus thought of them as the works of the Daemons, or the god's ministers, who ruled mankind in his place to keep him from the pollution of mortality. Who, then, would make choice of such a change? Perhaps the most famousâ¦  Celsus wrote at a time when Christianity was being persecuted. Übersetzt und erklärt von Horacio E. Lona. In the next place, Celsus urges us "to help the king with all our might, and to labour with him in the maintenance of justice, to fight for him; and if he requires it, to fight under him, or lead an army along with him." The excellent reconstruction and translation, together with a perfect introduction, by R. Joseph Hoffmann, reads like a modern text. His words are, "If these idols are nothing, what harm will there be in taking part in the feast? 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